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Agriculture > Spices > Pepper (Piper nigrum)

Crop Management


A majority of the cultivated types are monoecious (male and female flowers found in the same spike) though variation in sex expression ranging from complete male to complete female is found. Over 75 cultivars of black pepper are being cultivated in India. Karimunda is the most popular of all cultivars in Kerala.

The other important cultivars are Kottanadan (South Kerala), Narayakodi (Central Kerala), Aimpiriyan (Wayanad), Neelamundi (Idukki), Kuthiravally (Kozhikode and Idukki), Balankotta and Kalluvally (North Kerala). Panniyur-1, Panniyur-2, Panniyur-3, Panniyur-4, Panniyur-5, Panniyur-6, Panniyur-7, Subhakara, Sreekara, Karimunda, Panchami, Pournami, Kottanadan, Kuthiravally, Arakulam Munda, Balankotta and Kalluvally are the commonly cultivated varieties. Of these, Panniyur-1 is to be grown in comparatively open areas,improved varieties are Panniyur 8, Girimunda, and Malabar Excel.

Improved varieties of black pepper and their characteristic features
Name Pedigree Released from Av.yield kg/ha (dry) Oleoresin (%) Piperine (%) E.Oil (%) Remark
Panniyur -1 F1 of Uthirankotta X Cheriyakaniyakadan Pepper Research Station, Kerala Agriculture University, Panniyur 1242.0 11.8 5.3 3.5 Suited to all pepper growing regions. However, do not tolerate heavy shade.
Panniyur -2 Open pollinated progeny of 'Balankotta'
2570.0 10.9 6.6 3.4 Suited to all pepper growing tracts of Kerala. Appreciably tolerant to shade.
Panniyur -3 F1 of Uthirankotta x Cheriyakaniyakadan
1953.0 12.7 5.2 3.1 Suited to all pepper growing regions of Kerala. Late maturing.
Panniyur -4 Clonal selection of Kuthiravally
1277.0 9.2 4.4 2.1 Suited to all pepper growing tracts of Kerala. Performs well under adverse climatic conditions.
Panniyur -5 Open pollinated progeny of Perumkodi
1098.0 12.33 5.5 3.8 Suited to all pepper growing tracts. Tolerant to nursery diseases.
Subhakara Clonal selection of Karimunda IISR, Calicut 2352.0 12.4 3.4 5.0 Suited to all pepper growing tracts of Kerala and South Karnataka
2677.0 13.0 5.1 7.0 "
Panchami Clonal selection of Aimpirian
2828.0 12.5 4.7 3.4 "
Pournami Clonal selection of Ottaplackal
2333.0 13.8 4.1 3.4 Suited to all pepper growing tracts of Kerala and S.Karnataka. Tolerant to root knot nematode infection.
PLD-2 Clonal selection of Kottanadan Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Regional Station, Palode 2475.0 15.5 3.3 3.5 Recommended for release in Quilon and Trivandrum districts of Kerala
Panniyur-6, Panniyur-7.IISR Sakthi and IISR Thevam are tolerant to Phytophthora foot rot. Top
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