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Agriculture > Spices > Pepper (Piper nigrum)

Crop Management

Nutrient Management

Manuring for pepper vines is to be done in basins taken around the plant, 10-15 cm deep and 30-40 cm radius, depending upon the growth of the plants. Apply cattle manure / compost / green leaves at the rate of 10 kg / plant / annum, just at the onset of southwest monsoon and cover lightly with soil. It is desirable to apply lime at the rate of 500 g/vine in April-May, with the receipt of pre-monsoon showers, in alternate years.

Recommended nutrient dosage for pepper (3 years and above)

N: P2O5: K2O g/vine/year

50:50:150 (general recommendation)
50:50:200 (for Panniyur and similar areas)
140:55:275 (for Kozhikode and similar areas)

Note: Apply 1/3 dose for one-year-old plants and 1/2 dose for two-year-old plants.

The fertilizers may be applied in two split doses, the first in May-June with the receipt of a few soaking rains and the second in August-September. Apply fertilizers in a circle of radius 30 cm around the vine in the case of plants trailed on erythrina (murukku) or teak pole (dead standard) soil application of Zinc @ 6 kg/ha as zinc sulphate or foliar spray of Zn @ 0.5 per cent during flowering and pin head stage of black pepper is recommended in Zinc deficient areas of black pepper cultivation for increasing the yield and quality. Application of Molybdenum @ 1 kg/ha is recommended for areas deficient in soil molybdenum availability.

Apply 10 kg FYM + 500g neem cake + 500 g ash+ 2 kg vermicompost with biofertilizer- Azospirillum and P- solubilizing bacteria (20g)
Apply PGPR Consortia (50g) consisting of 2 spp. of Micrococcus and 1 spp. of Enterobacter per vine which helps in growth promotion and disease suppression.

  • Bush pepper

By planting lateral branches (plagiotropes) of pepper, the vine can be grown as a bush. One-year-old lateral branches with 2-4 nodes are to be planted in nursery during May-June for pre-rooting after treating the cut ends with 1000 ppm solution of IBA for 45 seconds. Rooting percentage of laterals is less than 20%. Only well-rooted and established plants are to be used for transplanting. The rooted cuttings are to be planted at 3-5 per pit or per pot.

Fertilizers can be applied @ 1.0, 0.5 and 2.0 g/pot of N, P2O5 and K2O respectively at bimonthly interval. Alternatively, application of 15 g groundnut cake (or) 33 g of neem cake can also meet the N requirement of the crop. The bushy nature of the plant will have to be ensured by proper pruning of the hanging shoots. The potted plants are to be kept preferably under partial shade. It is necessary that re-potting is carried out after every two years.

Irrigating black pepper vines with 8 litres of water through drip per day during Oct - May enhances yield and quality in bush pepper with high BC ratio. Recommended for bush pepper grown as intercrop in coconut gardens.


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