Thursday, September 19, 2019 Information Gateway on Agriculture to Convert "Know How To Do How" മലയാളം
Agriculture > Spices > Ginger

Crop Management

Organic farming

Maintenance of buffer zone, Sources of planting material, Preparation of land and planting, Cultural practices, Manuring, Plant protection

Maintenance of buffer zone

In order to cultivate ginger organically, a buffer zone of 25 to 50 feet is to be left all around from the conventional farm, depending upon the location of the farm. The produce from this buffer zone belt shall not be treated as organic. Being an annual crop, the conversion period required will be two years. Ginger can be cultivated organically as an inter or mixed crop provided all the other crops are grown following organic methods. It is desirable to include a leguminous crop in rotation with ginger. Ginger-banana legume or ginger-vegetable-legume can be adopted.

Sources of planting material

Carefully preserved seed rhizomes free from pests and diseases which are collected from organically cultivated farms can be used for planting. However, to begin with seed material from high yielding local varieties may be used in the absence of organically produced seed materials. Seed rhizomes should not be treated with any chemicals.

Preparation of land and planting

At the time of planting, apply 25g powdered neem coke and mix well with the soil in each pit taken at a spacing of 20-25 cm within and between rows. Seed rhizomes may be put in shallow pits and mixed with well rotten cattle manure or compost mixed with Trichoderma, an antagonistic (Parasitic) fungi (10g compost inoculated with Trichoderma).

Cultural practices

Mulching the ginger beds with green leaves is an essential operation to enhance germination of seed rhizomes and to prevent washing off of soil due to heavy rain. This also helps to add organic matter to the soil and conserve moisture during the later part of the cropping seasons. The first mulching is to be done with green leaves @ 10-12 t/ha at the time of planting. It is to be repeated @ 5 t/ha at 40th and 90th day after planting. Use of "Lantana camara" and Vitex negundo as mulch may reduce the infestation of shoot borer. Cow dung slurry or liquid manure may be poured on the bed after each mulching to enhance microbial activity and nutrient availability. Weeding may be carried out depending on the intensity of weed growth. Such materials may be used for mulching.

Manuring

Application of well rotten cow dung or compost @ 5-6 t/ha may be made as a basal dose while planting the rhizomes in the pits. In addition, application of neem cake @ 2 t/ha is also desirable.

Plant protection

Pests

Shoot borer is the major pest infesting ginger. Regular field surveillance and adoption of phytosanitary measures are necessary for pest management. It appears during July -October period. Spot out the shoots infested by the borer and cut open the shoot and pick out the caterpillar and destroy. Spray neem oil (0.5%) at fortnightly intervals if found necessary. Light traps will be useful in attracting and collecting the adult moths.

Diseases

Soft rot or rhizome rot is a major disease of ginger. While selecting the area for ginger cultivation care should be taken to see that the area is well drained as water stagnation pre- disposes the plants to infection. Hence provide adequate drainage. Select seed rhizomes from disease free areas since this disease is seed borne. Solarisation of soil done at the time of bed preparation can reduce the fungus inoculum. However, if the disease is noticed, the affected clumps are to be removed carefully along with the soil surrounding the rhizome to reduce the spread. Trichoderma may be applied at the time of planting and subsequently if necessary. Restricted use of Bordeaux mixture (1%) in disease prone areas may be made to control it as spot application.

Harvesting and post harvest operations

Burning of sulphur for processing ginger is not allowed.

Preservation of seed rhizomes

The rhizomes to be used as seed material should be preserved carefully. The indigenous practices like spreading layers of leaves of Glycosmis pentaphylla being followed by farmers can very well be adopted for this purpose.

 

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