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Agriculture > Fruit Crops > Pineapple (Ananas comosus)

Processing & Value Addition

Pineapple in syrup

Processing

  • Reception and weighing of pineapples. Select the raw material and remove damaged parts.  Remove the stem. Wash the pineapples in drinking water.
  • Peel the pineapples and remove the inedible parts. Cut the pineapples as required. They may be cut into slices (rings), chunks, and tidbit or may be crushed.


  • Heat the pineapple pieces in the pot. Fill the jars with the pieces while they are still warm, up to approximately two thirds of their capacity.

    Preparing and Using Sugar Syrups

    Adding syrup to canned fruit helps to retain its flavor, color, and shape. It does not prevent spoilage of these foods. The following guidelines for preparing and using syrups offer new "very light" syrup, which approximates the natural sugar content of many fruits. The sugar content in each of the five syrups is increased by about 10 percent. Quantities of water and sugar to make enough syrup for a canner load of pints or quarts are provided for each syrup type.

    Syrup Type

    Approx. % Sugar

    Measures of Water and Sugar

    Fruits commonly packed in syrup**

    For 5 liter Load*

    For 8 liter Load

    Cups Water

    Cups Sugar

    Cups Water

    Cups Sugar

    Very Light

    10

    6 ½

    ¾

    10 ½

    1 ¼

    Approximates natural sugar level in most fruits and adds the fewest calories.

    Light

    20

    5 ¾

    1 ½

    9

    2 ¼

    Very sweet fruit.

    Medium

    30

    5 ¼

    2 ¼

    8 ¼

    3 ¾

    Moderately sweet fruits.

    Heavy

    40

    5

    3 ¼

    7 ¾

    5 ¼

    Sour fruit.

    Very Heavy

    50

    4 ¼

     4 ¼

    6 ½

    6 ¾

    Very sour fruit.

    *This amount is also adequate for a 4.5-liter load.

    **Many fruits that are typically packed in heavy syrup are excellent and tasteful products when packed in lighter syrups. It is recommended that lighter syrups be tried, since they contain fewer calories from added sugar.
  • The hot syrup is added to the fruit, which has been arranged in the jars. Make sure that the jars are filled to the brim. Let it settle for 5 minutes to allow it and the fruit to warm up. Seal the jars hermetically. Sterilize the jars in boiling water for 20 minutes after placing them in bags to prevent them from knocking against each other and breaking when the water begins to boil. Cool the jars with running water. Dry, seal with adhesive tape, label and store.

Source: http://www.fao.org/

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Pineapple juice

Procedure:

  • Remove peel from 1 large pineapple, grind, put into kettle with water to barely cover and boil rapidly 10 minutes.
  • Strain juice through cheesecloth bag.  Pour juice into clean jars leaving about 1/2 inch of top of jar. Put on cap, and screw the band tight. 
  • Process in boiling water bath for 10 minutes. Packing may be done using plastic bottles or bags, coated cans, multilaminate (plastic, paper, metal foil) or any newer materials.
  • The pH values of the product must be controlled so it remains agreeable for human consumption. It is a common practice to blend batches of juices to attain proper acidity and sensory qualities.

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Pineapple fruit jam

Raw material:

Pineapples: 6 kg (peeled)
Sugar: 3 kg
Lemon juice: 50 ml

Processing:
  • Remove the unripe fruit and those affected by blemishes or signs of decay. Wash in abundant water and let drip. Remove the skin, according to the fruit being processed. Cut the fruit in halves or quarters, according to its size, and place in a pot.
  • Cook on low heat and stir frequently with a wooden spoon to prevent the product from sticking to the bottom of the pot and burning. Simmer for 15 minutes. Cook on a higher flame for 15 more minutes and stir frequently with the wooden spoon.
  • Add 1 kg of sugar and dissolve rapidly. Let cook for 30 minutes. Add 50 ml of lemon juice. Add the remaining 2 kg of sugar, dissolve it rapidly and boil for 15-20 minutes. When the product has become thicker and has reached the setting point, remove from the fire.
  • Fill the previously washed and dried glass jars with the hot jam up to 1.5 cm from the rim. Clean the upper part of the jars from possible jam residues. Close with screw-band lids. Turn the lid-bearing jars upside down, to sterilize the lids until the content cools off. Remove all jam residues from the outside of the jars and lids. Label each container, indicating the name of the product, the ingredients and date on which the product was prepared. Place a strip of adhesive paper over jar and lid, so as to be able to check whether the container was previously opened, before consuming the contents. Store in a dry place, free from dust and away from light. The product may be preserved for at least 12 months. Since less sugar than normal is used to make an extra-quality jam, once the jar is opened the product must be stored in the refrigerator.

Source: http://www.fcs.uga.edu/

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Pineapple Dried

Processing:

Pineapple has been known to be excellent for drying. In this product, most of the free water of the fruit is eliminated. To prepare, select fully ripe, fresh pineapple. Remove skin and eyes from pineapple with a sharp knife. Usually, chunks or slices are prepared for better presentation and to make handling easier. Final moisture is near 5%, and this allows the dried fruit to have a long shelf life as long as proper packing is provided and storage is done in a fresh place.

Pretreatments prevent fruits from darkening during long-term storage

Sulfuring:

In this method, sublimed sulfur is ignited and burned in an enclosed box with the fruit. The sulfur fumes penetrate the fruit and act as a pretreatment by retarding spoilage and darkening of the fruit. The sulfur fumes also reduce the loss of vitamins A and C.

Sulphite dip:

Sulphite dips can achieve the same long-term anti-darkening effect as sulfuring, but more quickly and easily. Either sodium bisulphite or sodium meta-bisulphite that are USP (food grade) or Reagent grade (pure) can be used.

Directions: Dissolve ¾ to 1 ½ teaspoons sodium bisulphite per quart of water. (If using sodium sulphite, use 1 ½ to 3 teaspoons. If using sodium meta-bisulphite, use 1 to 2 tablespoons.) Place the prepared fruit in the mixture and soak 5 minutes for slices, 15 minutes for halves. Remove fruits, rinse lightly under cold water and place on drying trays for drying.

Ascorbic Acid:

Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) mixed with water is a safe way to prevent fruit browning. However, its protection does not last as sulfuring or sulfiting.

Directions: Mix 3000 mg ascorbic acid tablets, (crushed) in 2 cups of water. Place the fruit in the solution for 3 to 5 minutes. Remove fruit, drain well and place on dryer trays. After this solution is used twice, add more ascorbic acid.

Fruit juice dip:

A fruit juice that is high in vitamin C can also be used as a pretreatment, though it is not as effective as pure ascorbic acid. Juices high in vitamin C include orange, lemon, pineapple, and grape. Each juice adds its own color and flavor to the fruit.

Directions: Place enough juice to cover the fruit in a bowl. Add sliced fruit. Soak 3 to 5 minutes, remove fruit, drain well and place on dryer trays. This solution may be used twice, before being replaced.

Honey dip:

Honey dipped fruit is much higher in calories.

Directions: Mix ½ cup sugar with 1 ½ cups boiling water. Cool to lukewarm and add ½ cup honey. Place fruit in dip and soak 3 to 5 minutes. Remove fruit, drain well and place on dryer trays.

Source: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/TOPIC_Food

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Pulp:

It is the product of the basic processing of peeled pineapple pulp by crushing. Pulp may be preserved by thermal treatment, by preservatives addition and proper handling in either small packages, or in bulk packages for further industrial processing and formulations as ice cream mixes, jellies, jams, sodas, etc.

Concentrated frozen pulp:

It is the product from thermal treatment of the pulp to remove at least 50% of the initial water content. Concentration and freezing are applied to preserve the pulp for extended periods of time. The concentrated pulp is stable without the addition of chemicals as long as it is kept frozen. Upon reconstitution (by replenishing the previously eliminated water) the pulp should have the same qualities as the original pulp.

Aseptic pulp:

It is the pulp that is heat-sterilized and packed aseptically; no chemicals are added and have a long shelf life. There is very specific equipment to perform this process and it is considered to be at the cutting edge of technology.

Concentrated frozen juice:

This product is prepared by direct application of heat to pineapple juice to reduce its water content. Preservation methods are similar as described for concentrated pulp in which no chemical additives are used.

Jelly:

Mix 1 kg grated pulp of fully mature peeled but somewhat raw fruits with ripe pineapple pulp (1 kg), 2.5 litre water 10 g citric acid and 2 g of pectin. Boil for 30 min, cool and allow to settle for 2 hours. Separate the supernatent (upper layer) and filter. Test for pectin quality. Formation of single clot with small quantity of ethyl alcohol added to test samples indicates high pectin content. Concentrate further if necessary to obtain single clot. Cook gently the extract with equal quantity of sugar to obtain the end point indicated by the formation of sheet. Pack hot. Cover with a layer of melted wax and close the lid.

Vinegar:

Vinegar is prepared by an acetic fermentation of alcohol solutions derived from sugar or starchy materials (fermentable sugar content of 8-20%). This is done by strains isolated from the raw materials. Peel and other pineapple by-products from processing can be used as raw materials to prepare natural vinegar and thus make a proper use of residuals. Vinegar must be pasteurized once it is prepared and bottled. It is stable at ambient temperature.

Sauce:

Concentrate 1 kg strained pulp containing 20 g sugar to 1/3 of its original volume in the presence of suspended spice bag containing 50 g chopped onion, 5 g garlic and 50 g ginger, 10 g powdered spices and 5 g red chillies. Press out spice bag occasionally and squeeze it out finally to obtain maximum spice extract. Add 15 g salt and remaining 40 g sugar and cook to thick consistency. Add 450 ml vinegar and cook again to end point. Add and mix preservative after dissolving in minimum quantity of water. Heat to boiling and hot pack.

Preserve and candy:

Cut rectangular slices (4x1 cm) or suitable sized cubes from the fully mature ripe washed peeled fruits after removing seeds. Keep in 1.5 % limewater for 3-4 hours. Drain and wash 3-4 times in plain water. Dissolve 400 g sugar in 600 ml hot water and filter. Boil pieces in sugar syrup and keep overnight. Next day drain the syrup, raise its Brix to 50. Add slices, boil and keep again. Repeat this process every day, untill Brix reaches 70-75°. Keep for a week. Drain the syrup, fill the pieces in dry jars and cover slices with freshly prepared sugar syrup of 70°Bx.       

For the preparation of candy, raise the Brix of syrup to 75°, and keep it for a week. Drain and dry the pieces under shade. Dip pieces in boiling water to remove adhering sugars. Drain, dry and pack.

Toffee:

Concentrate 1 kg sieved pulp to 1/3 volume and cook with added sugar (600 g), glucose (100 g) and hydrogenated fat (100 g) till a speck of the product put into water forms compact solid mass. Make thick paste of 100 g skim milk powder in minimum quantity of water and mix with the boiling mass. Spread 1-2 cm thick layer of the cooked mass over /SS trays smeared with fat. Add flavoring material at this stage, if necessary. Allow to cool. Cut and wrap in butter paper (Indiaagronet.com, 2000).

Source: http://www.fao.org/

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