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ആമുഖം

tIcf¯nse tXm«hnfIfnð {][m\amb ]¦phln¡pó Hcn\amWv IapIv. Ingt¡´y³ Zzo]pIsfbmWv IapInsâ DÛhØm\ambn IW¡m¡póXv. ^nenss¸³kmWv IapInsâ kztZisaó iàamb A`n{]mbhpw \nehnepïv. DjvWkaiotXmjvW taJeIÄ¡v A\ptbmPyamb Cu hnf C´y, ssN\, ^nenss¸³kv, kntem, ]m¡nØm³, aeb, kn¦¸qÀ FónhnS§fnð Irjn sN¿póp.

`mcX¯nð tIcfw, IÀ®mSIw, Bkvkmw Fóo kwØm\§fnemWv `qcn`mKw IapIv Irjnsb¦nepw B{Ô, almcmjv{S, taLmeb, Xangv\mSv, _wKmÄ, tKmh, Hdokvk Fóo kwØm\§fnepw IapIv Irjn sN¿pópïv. KpPdm¯nepw Ct¸mÄ IapIv Irjn Bcw`n¨n«pïv. tIcf¯nð an¡hmdpw Fñm PnñIfnepw IapIv Irjn sN¿pópïv.

h®w Ipdª Cu Hä¯Snhr£¯n\v sX§ntâXpt]mse aïbnð am{Xta CeIÄ (Hme) ImWs¸SpópÅp. XSnbnepS\ofw HmebpsS ]mSpIÄ Dïmbncn¡pw. 8þ12 hscbmWv HmebpsS F®w. Hmebv¡v 2þ3 aoäÀ hsc \ofhpw Dïmbncn¡pw. HmebpsS hoXnbpÅ ASn`mKw (]mf) aïsb s]mXnªp ØnXn sN¿póp. 18þ30 aoäÀ hsc Dbc¯nð IapIv hfcpóp. ]e imJIfpÅ IpeIfnemWv ]q¡Ä DïmIpóXv. B ]q¡fpw s]]q¡fpw Htc ]q¦pebnð ImWs¸Spóp. IapIv 6þ8 hÀjw apXð hnfhv \ðIn¯pS§póp.

sh«pIð a®nepw, Nphóa®nepw, F¡ða®nepw \ómbn hfcpó hnfbmWv IapIv. kap{Z\nc¸nð\nópw 1000 aoäÀhsc Dbc¯nð IapIv IrjnsNbvXphcpóp. \ñ ag e`n¡póXpw, PetkN\kuIcyapÅXpamb Fñm{]tZi§fnte¡pw tbmPn¨ HcphnfbmWnXv.

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ഇനങ്ങള്‍

IapIn\§fpw {]tXyIXIfpw

C\w

]pd¯nd¡nb Øm]\w

hnfhv Hcp ac¯nð\nóv

{]tXyIXIÄ

ku¯v Im\d (ImkÀtImS³) IÀ®mSIbnse Im\d Pnñbnð \nópw 7 In.{Kmw ]¨Sbv¡ 15 In.{Kmw sIm«Sbv¡ 2 In.{Kmw IfnbS¡ s]m¡wIqSnb C\w. Fñm sImñhpw XpSÀ¨bmb hnfhp Xcpóp. hep¸apÅ ASbv¡ icmicn ]cn]me\¯nð \ñ Dð¸mZ\w
awKf ssN\bnð \nópÅ C\w. hnäð KthjWtI{µw ]pd¯nd¡n (1972) 10 In.{Kmw ]¨Sbv¡ 2 In.{Kmw sIm«Sbv¡ 3 In.{Kmw IfnbS¡ CS¯cw Dbcw. 3-mw hÀjw Imbv]nSp¯w. Hcp Ipebnð\nópw IqSpXð ASbv¡, s]]q¡fpsS F®w IqSpXð
kpawKf Ct´mt\jybnð \nópÅ C\w. hnäð KthjW tI{µw ]pd¯nd¡n 17.5 In.{Kmw ]¨Sbv¡ 3.3 In.{Kmw sIm«Sbv¡ 3.3 In.{Kmw IfnbS¡ awKfbpsS Fñm KpW§fpapïv FóXnt\msSm¸w \namhncIsf sNdp¡ph\pÅ tijnbpapïv. ASbv¡¡v CS¯cw hep¸hpw AÞmIrXnbpw.
{ioawKf knwK¸qcnð\nópÅ C\w. hnäð KthjW tI{µw 15.6 In.{Kmw ]gp¯ AS¡ 3.18 In.{Kmw IfnbS¡ ]pd¯nd¡n \namhncIsf sNdp¡ph\pÅ tijnbpïv. ASbv¡ DcpïXpw AÞmIrXnbnepÅXpw.
tamlnXv \KÀ ]Ýna _wKmfnð\nópÅ C\w 9.6 In.{Kmw ]gp¯S¡ 3.5 In.{Kmw sIm«Sbv¡ 3.7 In.{Kmw IfnbS¡ \ñ DW§nb AS¡ e`n¡póp. tIcf¯nse ImemhØbpambn hfsc \ómbn t]mIpóp. ASbv¡ CS¯cw hep¸apÅXpw DcpïXpw.
tImgnt¡mSv 17 (kar²n) B³Ua³ \nt¡m_mÀ Zzo]v 18.9 In.{Kmw ]gp¯S¡ 4.37 In.{Kmw IfnbS¡ DbÀó hnfhv, ASbv¡ \oïXpw Dd¸pÅXpw.
{iohÀ²³ almcmjv{S 3.1 In.{Kmw sIm«Sbv¡ 2 In.{Kmw IfnbS¡ Xmw_qe NÀÆW¯n\v A\ptbmPyw. shÅ \nd¯nð DÅ AI¡m¼v. AÞmIrXnbnepÅ AS¡¡p \namhncIÄs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ iàn.
kar²n tI{µ ImÀjnI KthjW tI{µw, B³Uam³kv 19.0 In.{Kmw ]gp¯S¡ DbÀó hnfhv
Fkv.F.Fkvv 1 (SAS 1) {]mtZinI ImÀjnI KthjW tI{µw. knÀkn 24 In.{Kmw ]¨Sbv¡ 4.60 In.{Kmw IfnbS¡ Gähpw DbÀó hnfhv \ðIpó C\w. ASbv¡ DcpïXpw CS¯cw hen¸apÅXpw.

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പരിപാലനം

amXrhr£w sXcsªSp¡ð

hns¯Sp¡póXn\pÅ amXrhr£w sXcsªSp¡pó Imcy¯nð {]tXyIw {i²n¡Ww. amXrhr£¯nsâ KpWtZmj§Ä Dð¸mZ\£aXsb kzm[o\n¡pw. hnfhv \ðIm³ XpS§pó ImeamWv Dð¸mZ\tijntb¡mÄ {]m[m\yw AÀln¡pó LSIw. t\ct¯ hnfhv \ðIpó KpWw ASp¯]c¼cbv¡v ssIamdpóXn\pÅ Ignhv IapIn\pïv. XpSÀ¨bmbn aqóphÀjt¯bvs¡¦nepw Hcpt]mse \ñ hnfhv \ðIpó IapIns\bmWv amXrhr£ambn sXcsªSpt¡ïXv.

hn¯Sbv¡ tiJcn¡pó hn[w

Unkw_ÀþP\phcn Ime¯mWv hn¯Sbv¡ tiJcn¡póXv. hn¯n\mbn«pÅ ASbv¡ IpetbmsS ac¯nð Xsó \nóp ]gp¡m\\phZn¡Ww. Ah tISpIqSmsX IbdpsI«nbnd¡n thWw hn¯v kw`cn¡m³. hn¯nsâ `mca\pkcn¨v InfnÀ¡póXnsâ iXam\w hyXymks¸Spw. 41þ45 {Kmwhsc `mcapÅ hn¯pIÄ 90 iXam\hpw InfnÀ¡póXmbn Iïphcpóp. `mcwIqSnb hn¯pIfnð \nópïm¡pó ssXIfmWv \ómbn hfcpóXv. hn¯pIÄ FSp¯bpSs\ ]mIpóXmWv \ñXv. AXn\pkm[n¡pónsñ¦nð XWenð kq£n¨v HcmgvNbv¡pÅnðXsó ]mIm³ {i²n¡Ww.

XhmcW

a®v s]mSn¨v aWð \nc¯nb«pÅ XhmcWIfnð sR«p`mKw apIfnð hc¯¡h®w GItZiw 5 sk.ao. AIe¯nð hn¯v ]mImw. AXn\ptijw a®n«paqSn apIfnð ]ptñm, ssht¡mtem \nc¯n Znhtk\ \\¨psImSp¡Ww. \mð¸XpZnhkw sImïv hn¯v InfnÀ¡m³ XpS§pw. InfnÀ¯pIgnªmð HónShn« Znhk§fnð \\¨mð aXnbmIpw. kkykwc£W \S]SnIÄ bYmkabw ssIs¡mÅWw. sabvþPq¬ amk§fnð, AXmbXv cïpaqóv Ce hncnªv 90 Znhkw {]mbamb ssXIÄ, cïmw XhmcWbnte¡v amän \SWw. CXn\mbn 150 sk.ao. hoXnbnepw kuIcy{]Zamb \of¯nepw hmc§Ä FSp¡pI. ASnhfambn slIvSdn\v 5 S¬ Fó tXmXnð Imenhfw tNÀ¯tijw ssXIÄ 30 x 30 sk.ao. AIe¯nð \Smw. ssXIÄ¡v Bhiyamb XWð \ðIWw. CXn\mbn ]´ð C«psImSp¡pItbm, ]´enð ]SÀ¯pó tImhðt]msebpÅ ]¨¡dn hnfIÄ Irjn sN¿pItbm Asñ¦nð hmg, ac¨o\n Fónh h¨p]nSn¸n¡pItbm Bhmw. hmghbv¡póXv 2.7 x 3.6 ao. AIe¯nð Bbmð AXn\nSbv¡pÅ Øe¯v XhmcWbv¡mbpÅ hmc§fpw FSp¡m³ Ignbpw. XhmcWbnð thïnhcpó aäp]cnNcW apdIfmWv \\bpw IfsbSp¸pw, ]pXbnSepw.

ssXIÄ sXcsªSp¡pó hn[w

ssXIÄ¡v 12þ18 amkw {]mbambmð {][m\\net¯bv¡v amän\Smw. \ñssXIÄ sXcsªSp¡póXn\v \nÀ²mcW kqNIw (Selection Index) D]tbmKs¸Sp¯mw. CeIfpsS F®s¯ 40 sImïv KpWn¨pIn«pó kwJybnð \nópw ssXbpsS Dbcw Ipd¨mð \nÀ²mcW kqNIw e`n¡pw. CXv Gähpw A[nIapÅ ssXIÄ¡mbncn¡pw Dð¸mZ\tijn IqSpXð.

DZm: Dbcw þ 90 sk.ao.

CeIfpsS F®w þ 5

\nÀ²mcW kqNIw = (5 x 40) þ 90 = 110

\nÀ²mcW kqNIw 50þ150 hsc hyXymks¸«ncn¡pópsh¦nð Ignbpó{X DbÀó kqNI§Ä sXcsªSp¡m³ {i²n¡pI. Chbv¡v Dbcw Ipdhpw, 5þ6 CeIfpw \ñ I®mSn¡\hpapïmIpw. ssXIÄ at®mSpIqSn Cf¡nsbSp¯pthWw \Sm³.

Ipdn¸v: \«v Hcp hÀjw IgnªpÅ I®mSn¡\¯n\pw, cïphÀj¯n\ptijapÅ ap«pIfpsS F®¯n\pw Dð¸mZ\£aXbpambn _Ôapïv. AXn\mð \«v Hópw cïpw hÀjw Ignbpt¼mÄ I®mSn¡\anñm¯Xpw thï{X ap«pIÄ Cñm¯Xpamb ssXIÄ Hgnhm¡póXv \ñXmWv.

\Soð

iànbmb shbnenð \nópw ssXIsf kwc£n¡póXn\pthïn thK¯nð hfcpóXpw, s]m¡w IqSnbXpamb XWð hr£§Ä tXm«¯nsâ sX¡pw ]Snªmdpw hi§fnð hfÀ¯Ww.

ssXIÄ 2.7 ao. x 2.7 ao. AIe¯nð sX¡pþhS¡v ZnibnepÅ hcnIfnð \SWw. hcnIÄ¡v ]Snªmdv Znibnte¡v Að]w Ncnhv (35 Un{Kn) DÅXv A`nImayamWv. 60 x 60 x 60 sk.ao. Afhnð IpgnIsfSp¯v ASnbnð 15 sk.ao. I\¯nð hf¡qdpÅ taða®v \nd¨v ssXIfpsS I®mSn`mKw a®n\papIfnð hc¯¡h®w \«v a®n«pd¸n¡Ww.

\oÀhmÀ¨bpÅ a®nð sabvþPq¬ amk§fnepw, Ifna®v IeÀó a®nð BKÌvþsk]väw_dnepw ssX \Smw. BZys¯ 4þ5 hÀjwhsc XWen\mbn hcnIÄ¡nSbnð hmg\SmhpóXmWv.

hf{]tbmKw

\«v BZyhÀjw apXð ssX Hón\v Hcp hÀjw 12 In.{Kmw Fó tXmXnð ssPhhfw tNÀ¡Ww. Imenhfw, It¼mÌv, tImgnhfw, Fñps]mSn, B«n³ImjvSw, ]¨nehf§Ä FónhsbñmwXsó \ñ ssPhhf§fmWv. sk]väw_ÀþHIvtSm_À amk§fnð ssPhhfw tNÀ¡mw.

hfÀ¨sb¯nb \mS³ IapIn\v 100:40:140 {Kmw hoXhpw, Dð¸mZ\tijn IqSnbhbv¡v 150:60:210 {Kmw hoXhpw NPK e`n¡¯¡h®w cmkhf§Ä Hcp hÀjw BhiyamWv. \«v Hcp hÀjw {]mbambhbv¡v CXnsâ aqónð Hcp `mKhpw, 2 hÀjw {]mbambhbv¡v aqónð cïv `mKhpw, aqómw hÀjw apXð apgph³ tXmXpw \ðImw. PetkN\kuIcyapÅ tXm«§fnð Hómw KUp cmkhfw sk]väw_ÀþHIvtSm_dnepw, cïmwKUp s^{_phcnbnepw \ðImw. agsb B{ibn¨v IrjnsN¿pt¼mÄ cïmwKUp th\ð ag e`n¨Xn\ptijw amÀ¨vþG{]nð amk§fnð \ðIpI. Hócþcïv aoäÀ hymk¯nepw, 15þ20 sk.ao. Bg¯nepw FSp¯ XS§fnð cmkhf§fpw, ssPhhf§fpw sk]väw_ÀþHIvtSm_À amk§fnembn tNÀ¯v XSw aqSWw. cïmwKUp cmkhfw If \o¡btijw ISbv¡en«v a®nð sIm¯nbnf¡n tNÀ¯mðaXn.

]pfnckapÅ a®nð ssX Hón\v 500 {Kmw Ip½mbw ctïmþaqtóm hÀjw IqSpt¼mÄ C«psImSp¡Ww. cïmwKUp cmkhfw tNÀ¡póXn\v cïmgvN ap¼mbn Ip½mbw hnXdn a®pambn sIm¯nbnf¡Ww.

PetkN\w

ImemhØbpw a®nsâ LS\bpa\pkcn¨v 3 apXð 5 hsc Znhkw CShn«v \\bv¡Ww. ]Snªmd³ Xoc{]tZi§fnð \hw_ÀþUnkw_À amk§fnð 7þ8 Znhk¯nsemcn¡epw, P\phcnþs^{_phcn amk§fnð 6 Znhk¯nsemcn¡epw, amÀ¨vþG{]nð amk§fnð 3þ5 Znhk¯nsemcn¡epw \\bv¡Ww FómWv ip]mÀi. IapsImón\v Hmtcm \\bv¡pw 175 enäÀ shÅw sImSp¡Ww. PeZuÀe`yapÅ Øe§fnð ""XpÅn\\'' coXnbmWv \ñXv. ]pXbnSpóXv tXm«¯nse CuÀ¸w \ne\nÀ¯póXn\v klmbn¡pw.

AtXmsSm¸wXsó ag¡me¯v IapIn³ tXm«§fnð NmepIÄ Iodn \oÀhmÀ¨mkuIcyw sa¨s¸Sp¯m\pw {i²n¡Ww. Pe\nÀ¤a\tijn Ipdbpt¼mÄ tcmKw hcm\pÅ km²yX Gdnhcpóp.

Irjn¸WnIÄ

tXm«¯nð IfIÄ CñmXncn¡m³ {i²n¡Ww. ImehÀjahkm\n¡pótXmsS HIvtSm_Àþ\hw_À amk§fnð Inft¨m, sIm¯ntbm tXm«¯nse a®v Cf¡Ww. sNcnhpÅ Øe§fnð X«pIfpïm¡n as®men¸v XSbWw. BhcW hnfIfptStbm, ]¨nehfs¨SnIfptStbm hn¯v G{]nðþsabv amk§fnð th\ðatgmsS hnX¨v sk]väw_ÀþHIvtSm_À amk§fnð Ah ]q¡pótXmsS a®nð DgpXptNÀ¡mw.

CShnfbpw, an{ihnfbpw

tN\, ssIX¨¡, IpcpapfIv, shäne, Kn\n¸pല്ല്v, sImt¡m, Cഞ്ചി, Gew XpS§nbh IapIn³ tXm«¯nല്‍ hfÀ¯mw. sImt¡m \Spt¼mÄ 2.7 x 5.4 aoäÀ AIew BhiyamWv. GXphnfbmbmepw Hmtcmന്നn\pw {]tXyIw {]tXyIw hfw sNt¿­Xv AXymhiyamWv.

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സസ്യസംരക്ഷണം

IoS§Ä

aWvUcnIÄ:Hmdôv \nd¯nepÅ aWvUcnIfmWv IapInsâ Hcp {][m\IoSw. Chsb ssUsat¯mtbäv 0.05 iXam\w Xfn¨v \nb{´n¡mw.

Ipcpt¯me¨mgn:CXnsâ B{IaW^eambn CeIfnð Xhn«p\nd¯nepÅ DW§nb ]mSpIÄ ImWmw. ImÀ_mdnð 50 iXam\w WP Xfn¨v Chsb \nb{´n¡mw. IoS\min\n Hme¡hnfpIfnð hogpópsïóv Dd¸v hcp¯Ww. IoS_m[ XpSÀópw ImWpIbmsW¦nð 30þ35 Znhk¯n\ptijw Hcn¡ðIqSn acpóp Xfnt¡ïnhcpw.

]q¦pe¨mgn: ]q¦pe hncnbpóXn\pap¼mbn ame¯ntbm 50EC (250 an.en./100 en.shÅw) Xfn¨psImSp¡pI. saämðUnsslUv Fó IoS\min\n D]tbmKn¨pÅ sIWnIÄh¨v IapIns\ B{Ian¡pó H¨pIsf \in¸n¡póXv ]q¦pe¨mgnbpsS B{IaWkm²yX Ipdbv¡pw.

thcpXo\n¸pgp¡Ä

ac¯n\pNpäpw 10þ15 sk.ao. Bg¯nð a®nf¡n 0.04% t¢mtdmss]dnt^mkv emb\n cïp XhW (BZyt¯Xv ImehÀj¯n\pap¼v G{]nðþsabv amk§fnepw, ]nóoSv ag Ahkm\n¡póXn\v ap¼v sk]väw_ÀþHIvtSm_dnepw) a®v IpXncpó hn[¯nð Hgn¨psImSp¡Ww. ctïmþaqtóm hÀjw XpSÀ¨bmbn C{]Imcw sNbvXmð thcpXo\n¸pgp¡sf apgh\mbpw \in¸n¡m\mhpw.

tcmK§Ä

almfn AYhm ImbvNobð

Hcp iXam\w hocyapÅ t_mÀtUman{inXw hÀj¯nð ctïmþaqtóm XhW IpeIfnð Xfn¨psImSp¡Ww. BZy acpópXfn sX¡p]Snªmd³ ImehÀj¯n\p ap³]pw, ]nót¯Xv 40 Znhkw Ignªpamhmw. ag \oïp\nð¡pIbmsW¦nð aqómasXmcp XhWIqSn acpópXfn¡Ww. ]ibmbn tdmkn³tkmU D]tbmKn¡mw. tcmKw _m[n¨Xpw sImgnªphoWXpamb ASbv¡IÄ tiJcn¨v tXm«¯nð\nópw \o¡w sN¿Ww.

Iq¼pNobð

tcmKw_m[n¨ Iq¼pw HmeIfpw sh«namän \in¸n¡Ww. tcmK¯nsâ XpS¡amsW¦nð Noª `mK§Ä \o¡nbtijw apdn¸mSnð t_mÀtUman{inXw ]pc«pItbm, 1 iXam\w hocyapÅ t_mÀtUman{inXw aïbnð \ñh®w hog¯¡hn[w Xfn¡pItbm sN¿pI.

aqSpNobð

  1. tcmKw _m[n¨ ac¯n\pNph«nð\nópw Hcp aoäÀ AIe¯nð hr¯mIrXnbnð 30 sk.ao. hoXnbpw, 60 sk.ao. BghpapÅ InS§v Ipgn¨v tcmKw aäv hi§fnte¡v ]IcpóXv XSbmw.
  2. Im]väm³ 0.3%, ImenIvkn³ 0.1%, tIm¸ÀHmIvknt¢mssdUv 0.3% FónhbntesX¦nepsamóp]tbmKn¨v XS¯nse a®v IpXnÀ¡Ww.
  3. tcmKw_m[n¨ ac§Ä IStbmsS tXm«¯nð\nóv amän \in¸n¡pI.
  4. ssXIÄ \SpóXn\v ap¼v a®v 1 iXam\w hocyapÅ t_mÀtUman{inXw sImïv IpXnÀ¡pI.
  5. tcmKtlXphmb Ipanfnsâ BXntYbkky§fmb KpðtamlÀ, D§v apXemb ac§Ä tXm«¯ntem, AXn\Spt¯m hfcmXncn¡m³ {]tXyIw {i²n¡pI.
  6. acsamón\v 2 In.{Kmw th¸n³]n®m¡nSpI.
  7. shůneqsS tcmKw ]IcpsaóXn\mð tcmKw _m[n¨ ac§fpÅ tXm«§fnð \\bv¡pt¼mÄ shÅw, tcmKw_m[n¨ ac¯nsâ ISbv¡ð \nópw aäpac§fpsS XS¯nte¡v XpdóphnSmXncn¡pI.

Hmeaªfn¸v tcmKw

tcmKw _m[n¨ ac§fpsS BtcmKyw hosïSp¡póXn\v ip]mÀisNbvXn«pÅ hf{]tbmKw, Irjn¸WnIÄ, kkykwc£W amÀK§Ä Fónh kzoIcn¡pI. tXm«¯nse \oÀhmÀ¨mkuIcyw IpäaäXm¡pI.

tcmK\nb{´Ww

  1. ip]mÀisNbvXn«pÅ Afhnð hfw tNÀ¡pI.
  2. ip]mÀisNbvX hf¯n\p]pdta 160 {Kmw tdm¡vt^mkvt^äv hoXw Hmtcmac¯n\pw tNÀ¡pI.
  3. Hcp ac¯n\v 12 In.{Kmw hoXw It¼mÌpw ]¨nehfhpw Hcp hÀjw \ðIpI.
  4. th\ð¡me¯v PetkN\w \S¯Ww.
  5. \oÀhmÀ¨mkuIcyw Dd¸v hcp¯Ww.
  6. BhcW hnfIÄ IrjnsN¿pI.
  7. hfsc Ipd¨p ac§Ä¡v am{Xta tcmKw_m[n¨n«pÅpsh¦nð AXv ]IcmXncn¡póXn\v Ah tXm«¯nð \nópw bYmkabw \o¡wsN¿pI.
  8. kkykwc£W \S]SnIÄ IrXyambn \S¸nem¡pI.

I®mSnNobð

XhmcWIfnð \oÀhmÀ¨mkuIcyw Ipdbpt¼mÄ Iïphcpó Hcp tcmKamWnXv. ssXIfpsS Iq¼nepw IS`mK¯pw 1 iXam\w hocyapÅ t_mÀtUman{inXw Hgn¨psImSp¡pI.

]q¦peIcn¨nð

tcmKw_m[n¨ ]q¦pe \o¡wsNbvXtijw kn\_v 4 {Kmw Asñ¦nð amt¦msk_v 3 {Kmw, Hcp enäÀshůnð IeÀ¯n s]ണ്‍]q¡Ä hncnbpt¼mgpw AXn\ptijw 15þ28 Znhkw Ignªpw Xfn¡pI. Hmdn^wKn³tkmÄ 50 ppm Dw Cu tcmKs¯ \nb{´n¡póXn\v ^e{]Zambn Iïn«pïv.

sNóoscmen¸v

10þ15 hÀjw {]mbapÅ ac§fnemWv km[mcWbmbn Cu tcmKw ImWpóXv. XSnbpsS IS`mK¯v sNdnb \ndhyXymkambn«mWv tcmKw XpS§póXv. ]nóoSv Cu ]mSpIÄ hepXmhpIbpw, XSn hnÅpIbpw, AIs¯ \mcpIÄ AgpIpIbpw sN¿pw. tcmKw IqSpótXmsS apdnhnð\nópw Xhn«p\nd¯nepÅ {ZmhIw Hen¡m³ XpS§pw. a®nse shÅs¡«v tcmKw hÀ²n¸n¡pw. \oÀhmÀ¨ sa¨s¸Sp¯pIbpw, ss{SUntamÀ^v (1.5%) thcnð¡qSn \ðIpIbpamWv {]Xnhn[n.

XSnhnÅð (XSnbpW¡w)

sX¡p]Snªmd³ shbnð Gð¡msX ac§Ä ]mfh¨v sI«pItbm, shÅ]qipItbm sN¿pI. hfscthKw Dbc¯nð hfcpó ac§Ä tXm«¯nsâ hi§fnð sX¡pw ]Snªmdpw `mK§fnð h¨p]nSn¸n¡pI.

Imbv hnÅð

10 apXð 25 hÀjwhsc {]mbapÅ ac§fnemWv Cu tcmKw IqSpXembn ImWpóXv. ]IpXntbm, ap¡mð`mKtam aq¸mIpt¼mtg¡pw ImbvIÄ aªfn¡póXmWv e£Ww. ImbpsS Aä¯v\nóv Bcw`nക്കുó hnÅð s\SpsI hym]n¨v hn¯v ]pdt¯¡v ImWmdmIpw. A]qÀÆambn ]pdwtXmSn\v tISnñmsX hn¯n\pam{Xw hnÅteð¡pw. AanXamb hf{]tbmKw, hcĨ¡vtijapÅ Pee`yX, Bhiy¯n\pÅ CuÀ¸anñmbva FónhbmWv tcmKImcW§Ä. \oÀhmÀ¨ sa¨s¸Sp¯pIbpw t_mdmIvkv 2 {Kmw/Hcp enäÀ shůnð FtXmXnð Xfn¡pIbpw sN¿póXv tcmKw Ipdbv¡póXmbn Iïn«pïv.

മുകളിലേക്ക്

വിളവെടുപ്പ്

\«v 6þ7 hÀjw Ignªmð IapIv Imbv¡m³ XpS§pw. 10þ-15 hÀjamIpótXmsS Dð¸mZ\w Gähpw anI¨ \nebnemIpóp. ]nóoSv 20 hÀjw hsc \ñ hnfhv Xcpw. AXn\ptijw Dð¸mZ\w {ItaW IpdbpIbpw GItZiw 40 hÀjamIpt¼mtg¡pw Dð¸mZ\w \nebv¡pIbpw sN¿póp. 20 hÀjw {]mbamb tXm«¯nð ASnss¯IÄ hbv¡mw.

kwkv¡cns¨Sp¡pó Dð¸ó¯n\\pkcn¨v ]dn¡pó ASbv¡bpsS aq¸v (hnfhv) hyXykvXamWv. ASbv¡ hnfbpóXnse hnhn[ L«§Ä ChbmWv.

6 amkw     ]IpXn aq¸v

7 amkw    aq¯Xv, ]s£ ]¨\ndw

8 amkw    ]IpXn ]gp¯Xv

9 amkw    ]gp¯ ASbv¡

\ómbn {i²n¡pó tXm«§fnð icmicn 120 ASbv¡ Hcp ac¯nð \nóv In«pw. Hcp slÎdnð \nóv icmicn 11.5 S¬ AS¡ Dð¸mZn¸n¡mw. \hw_À apXð s^{_phcn hscbmWv tIcf¯nð ASbv¡ ]gp¯p hnfªp In«póXv. CXnð Gdnb ]¦pw \hw_ÀþUnkw_À amk¯nð hnfshSp¸v Ignbpw. IapIn³ tXm¸pIfnð km[mcW Hcä¯pÅ sNSnbnembncn¡pw Ibä¡mÀ IbdpóXv. B ac¯nse ASbv¡ ]dn¨p Ignªmð ac¯nsâ Xe¸¯ncpóv hoinbmSn sXm«Sp¯ ac¯nð ]nSn¡póp. C§s\ tXm«¯nse apgph³ achpw hnfshSp¯ tijta Xmtg¡v Cd§nhcpópÅp.

മുകളിലേക്ക്

സംസ്കരണം

kwkv¡cW coXnsb ASnØm\am¡n hnhn[ aq¸pÅ ASbv¡IfmWv tiJcnt¡ïXv. 23 amkw {]mbapÅ ASbv¡IfmWv Xosc aqs¸¯m¯Xv. 9 amkw aqs¸¯nbhbmWv Gähpw ]mIambXv. CXn\nSbv¡pÅ ]e L«§fnepw ASbv¡ tiJcn¡mdpïv.

\oäSbv¡

image

shäne apdp¡pImÀ AS¡ cïv aqóv Xc¯nð D]tbmKn¡mdpïv. ]gp¡Sbv¡ DW§nt¸mIsX kq£n¡póXmWv BZys¯ coXn. CXn\v \oäSbv¡ Fóp ]dbpw. \ómbn hnfªp ]gp¯ ASbv¡ hr¯nb¡n a¬ Ie§fnð shÅsamgn¨v AXnð kq£n¡póp. ]ïv \m«n³]pd§fnð ASp¯ hnfshSp¸pImew hsc AS¡ C§s\ kq£n¡mdpïv. ho«mhiy¯n\pÅ ASbv¡bmWv km[mcW C§s\ \ocnð kq£n¡póXv. _mÎocnb _m[n¨v sXmïv AfnbpóXpaqew \oäS¡ ]gIpt¼mÄ Noª \mäambncn¡pw. Fómð km[mcW KXnbnð sXmenbnepÅ Nobð ASbv¡sb _m[n¡pIbnñ.

Bkvkmanð CtX Bhiy¯n\v ASbv¡ a®nemWs{X kq£n¡póXv. ChnsSbpw _mÎcobbpw Ipanfpw _m[n¨v sXmïv AgpImdpïv. IÀ®mSI¯nse sk³{Sð ^pUv sSIvt\mfPn¡ð dnkÀ¨v C³Ìnäyq«v (CFTRI) \oäSbv¡ kq£n¡m³ Hcp \qX\amÀ¤w Isï¯nbn«pïv. BZyambn ASbv¡ t¢mdn³ IeÀ¯nb shůnð IgpIpI. AXp Ignªv 0.2% Imðkyw t¢mssdUv emb\nbnð ap¡nsbSp¡pI. CXv sXmen¸pdtabpÅ AWp¡sf Ipdbv¡m³ klmbn¡pw. AXn\ptijw 0.1% hocyapÅ tkmUnbw s_³tkmtbäpw 0.2% hocyapÅ saämss_kÄss^äpw tNÀópÅ emb\nbnð (pH 4.0) kq£n¡pI. Cu coXnbnð ASbv¡ bmsXmcp tISpw IqSmsX Hcp hÀjw hsc kq£n¨phbv¡mw.

C\n ASbv¡bpsS Gähpw {]NmcapÅ aäv cïn\§fmWv sIm«¸m¡pw IfnbSbv¡bpw.

sIm«¸m¡v

\ómbn hnfªv ]gp¯ ASbv¡ shbnenð DW¡n FSp¯mWv sIm«¸m¡pïm¡póXv. ASbv¡ \ñ shbnenð 35-þ-40 Znhkw DW¡n FSp¡Ww. \ómbn Hcpt]mse DW§m³ ASbv¡ CS¡nsS Nn¡ns¡mSp¡pIbpw thWw. \ómbn DW§nb ASbv¡bmWv sIm«¸m¡mbn hn]Wnbnð F¯póXv. ASbv¡bpsS hen¸a\pkcn¨v hn]Wnbnð tam¯n, tamd, Pmw, Po\n, en³Un Fóo Aôv t{KUpIfmbn Xncn¨ncn¡póp. aq¸pIpdª ASbv¡, ASbv¡ hnïpIodð, sXmen ]än¸nSn¨ncn¡pI, IoS IpanÄ_m[ CsXñmw sIm«Sbv¡bpsS hnesb _[n¡pó LSI§fmWv. DW§ð Ffp¸amIm³ ASbv¡ Nnet¸mÄ cïmbn s]mfn¨v DW¡mdpïv. C§s\ s]mfn¨ ASbv¡ 10 Znhkw sImïv DW§n¡n«pw. AXn\ptijw ASbv¡ sXmïnð \nóv ASÀ¯nsbSp¯v HópIqSn DW¡póp. C§s\ DW¡nb ASbv¡ ]mÀ¨ Fó t]cnemWv Adnbs¸SpóXv.

ASbv¡ DW¡nsbSp¡m\pÅ Hcp b{´w ssakqcnse sk³{Sð ^pUv sSIvt\mfPn¡ð dnkÀ¨v C³Ìnäq«v cq]Ið¸\ sNbvXn«pïv. Cu b{´¯nð 78 Znhkw sImïv ASbv¡ DW¡nsbSp¡mw. HmtcmZnhkhpw 8 aWn¡qÀ DW¡pIbpw 16 aWn¡qÀ Hmh\nepw hbv¡póp. DW¡nb sIm«Sbv¡ sXmen Ifbm\pw Hcp D]IcWw \nÀ½n¨n«pïv. Hcp km[mcW sXmgnemfn¡v 8 aWn¡qÀ sImïv 40 Intem{Kmw ASb¡ Cu b{´w D]tbmKn¨v sXmen Ifbmw.

Ifn¸m¡v

sIm«Sbv¡ t]mse¯só hn]W\ {]m[m\yapÅ asämcp Dð¸óamWv Ifn¸m¡v AYhm IfnbSbv¡. 67 amkw aq¸pÅ ASbv¡bmWv IfnbS¡ \nÀ½n¡m³ D]tbmKn¡póXv. BZyambn ASbv¡bpsS sXmen Ifbpóp. BhiyapÅ cq]¯nepw hen¸¯nepT sh«nsbSp¡IbmWv ASp¯]Sn. sh«póXnepÅ hyXymk§f\pkcn¨v IfnbSbv¡ \nch[n t{KUpIfpïv. Dï Fó C\w t]cpt]mse Xsó sh«m¯ Dcpï ASbv¡IfmWv. Häsh«v IpdpsI cïmbn apdn¨ C\amWv. NqÀ Fóbn\¯nð s\SpsI Ipsd sh«pIÄ sImSp¡póp. sh«pIfpsS F®¯nepÅ hyXymk¯nð Ch hoïpw Xcw Xncn¡s¸Spóp. s\SpsIbpw IpdpsIbpw sh«nbmWv s]mSn Fó t{KUv Dïm¡póXv. Ctdkðkv In«m³ IpdpsIbmWv ASbv¡ h«póXv. Bhiym\pkcWw ASbv¡ sh«n¡gnªmð AXp shůnð ]pgp§n FSp¡pIbmWv ASp¯]Sn. Htc shůnð 34 XhW ASbv¡ ]pgp§n FSp¡mw. ASbv¡ thhn¨ shÅw ]nóoSv Ipdp¡nsbSp¡póp. CXns\bmWv Ifn Fóp ]dbpóXv. thhn¨ ASbv¡ Cu Ifn ]pc«n DW¡nsbSp¡póp. Ifn henbpt¼mÄ hoïpw 23 XhW Ifn ]pc«n DW¡póXv ASbv¡¡v Xnf¡w Iq«m³ klmbn¡pw. thhn¡msXbpw aq¸pIpdª ASbv¡IÄ DW¡n FSp¡mdpïv. sFtem Fó t]cnemWv Cu t{KUv Adnbs¸SpóXv.

hmk\ ASbv¡

DW¡nb ASbv¡ sNdnb IjvW§fm¡n AXnð hmk\bpw kzmZpw hÀ²n¸n¡m³ hnhn[ Xcw km[\§Ä Iq«n¨À¯mWv hmk\ ASbv¡ Dïm¡póXv. kzmZv hÀ²n¸n¡m³ tNÀ¡pó km[\§Ä Hmtcm I¼\nbpw AXoh clkyambn kq£n¡póp.

മുകളിലേക്ക്

കമുകില്‍ നിന്നുള്ള ഉല്‍പന്നങ്ങള്‍

Sm\n³

IfnbS¡ Dïm¡pt¼mÄ Dt]mð¸óambmWv Sm\n³ e`n¡póXv. ASbv¡ thhn¨p In«pó Ifnbnð Sm\n³ [mcmfw Dïv. XpWnIfpw Ibdpw \ndw ]nSn¸n¡m\pw XpIð Sm\nwKn\pw ASbv¡bnð \nópapÅ Sm\n³ D]tbmKn¡mw.

sImgp¸v

ASbv¡bnð 8-þ12 iXam\w sImgp¸v AS§nbn«pïv. a[pc]elmc§Ä¡pw kuµcy hÀ²IhkvXp¡fnepw D]tbmKn¡pó Xcw sImgp¸mWnXv.

sXmïv

sXmïnð \nópÅ NIncn \mcv Ipj\pIÄ, ss^_À t_mÀUpIÄ Fónh Dïm¡m³ D]tbmKn¡mw.

IapIn³]mf

IapIn³]mfsImïv sNdnb XfnI, sFkv{Iow I¸v, ¥mÊv, Icïn Fónh \nÀ½n¡mhpóXmWv. CXv D]tbmKn¡m³ kuIcy{]ZamsWópa{Xañ, D]tbmKtijw IfbmhpóXmWv. A´co£aen\oIcW¯n\v CSbm¡pó ¹mkvänIv sImïpÅ \ntXym]tbmKhkvXp¡fpsS AXn{]kcw Ipdbv¡m³ kzoImcyamb Hcp aÀ¤amWnXv. IapIn³]mf sImïpÅ sXm¸n, hnidn, shÅw tImcpóXn\pÅ ]mf, sNcp¸v Fónh hfsc ]ïp Imew XpS§n D]tbmKn¨phcpópïv. IqSmsX IapIn³ ]«sImïv Nqev, sXcnI Fónhbpw Dïm¡mw.

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